Portland cement is the most versatile and commonly used material for the worldwide construction of buildings and is the most basic ingredient of concrete. It was invented by Joseph Asphdin in 1824 and he gave it a patent name of ‘Portland Cement’ as it resembled the famous Portland Stone which is widely used for construction of buildings in England.
The low cost of the product and the natural availability of raw materials makes it a very popular construction product. Portland cement is also available as White Portland Cement and Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement. They are available in various grades depending upon their individual strength and composition.
Portland Cement is manufactured when limestone and clay are combined and heated at a temperature of 1450C. The mixture is then ground to a fine powder with an addition of Gypsum to form Portland Cement. The powder is grey in colour.
When water is mixed in the Portland cement, it sets and continues to harden when hydrated over a period of time. Proper hydration ensures good strength of the concrete. If the cement is not hydrated properly it shall create cracks and will have a very low strength and stability.
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